ECHR Ruling Looms: Belgian Ban on Headscarves Challenged

In a landmark case that has stirred debates on religious freedoms and educational neutrality, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) is set to issue its ruling on Wednesday regarding the ban on headscarves in Belgian secondary schools. 

The case, brought forth by three young Belgian Muslim women, challenges the prohibition of wearing conspicuous religious symbols in the Flemish Community’s official education system.

The controversy surrounding the ban dates back to February 2013, when the Flemish GO! (community education) schools implemented a policy forbidding the display of any visible signs of religious beliefs, including headscarves. 

While individual schools in Flanders retain the authority to decide their dress code, GO! schools have upheld the ban in the name of providing neutral education.

The three women, aged 20, 22, and 23, initiated legal action in November 2020, asserting that the ban infringed upon their fundamental rights, including the freedom to manifest their religion and the right to education.

They argued that the prohibition amounted to discrimination and violated their privacy and freedom of expression.

This legal battle resurfaced in the public sphere after several years of relative calm, sparked by a 2009 ruling and subsequent court cases. 

Notably, a 2018 ruling by a court in Tongeren favored 11 girls from secondary schools in Maasmechelen, including the three plaintiffs, permitting them to wear headscarves despite the ban. However, this decision did not overturn the prohibition entirely.

The legal landscape shifted in late 2019 when the Court of Appeal in Antwerp justified the ban in two schools in Maasmechelen, emphasizing the necessity for neutrality in public education. 

Flemish Education Minister Ben Weyts urged closure on the matter, but dissent persisted as the affected parties contemplated further legal recourse.

In response to the appeal’s negative opinion in 2020, the three women took their case to the ECHR, arguing that the ban encroached upon multiple rights guaranteed by the European Convention on Human Rights

Their contention underscores a broader debate over the balance between religious freedom and secularism in educational settings.

While the Tongeren court’s ruling cited the European Convention on Human Rights in favor of religious freedoms, the outcome of the ECHR case remains uncertain. 

Notably, a parallel case concerning the ban on unstunned slaughter of animals, brought by Jewish and Muslim communities, saw the ECHR uphold the measure as justified in principle for animal welfare.

The impending ECHR decision carries significant implications not only for Belgium but also for broader discussions on religious expression in secular institutions across Europe. 

Regardless of the outcome, the case underscores the complexities inherent in reconciling religious freedoms with the imperative of maintaining neutrality in public education.

As anticipation mounts ahead of the ECHR ruling, stakeholders on all sides await a verdict that will shape the contours of religious liberties and educational policies in Belgium and beyond.


This article was created using automation and was thoroughly edited and fact-checked by one of our staff editorial members

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